The calcific tendonitis is a pathological condition of the shoulder that usually affects people over the age of 40 and is characterized by the deposition and accumulation of calcium (hydroxyapatite crystals) on the tendon of the rotator cuff of the shoulder. This deposition is usually located slightly more centrally than the supraspinatus insertion and similar lesions can be observed in tendons and ligaments and in other parts of the body (ankle, knee, hip, and elbow).
What is a Frozen Shoulder? “Frozen shoulder” is a term that describes a pathological condition that is characterized primarily by painful stiffness. The patient presents a loss of range of motion in more than one direction. The medical term for frozen shoulder is adhesive capsulitis and describes an inflammatory condition that affects the entire rotator cuff and the underlying joint capsule leading to tissue shrinkage and adhesion of the follicle to adjacent tissues (e.g. femoral head).
Shoulder Anatomy The shoulder consists not only of the glenohumeral joint (humeral head in the glenoid cavity) but also of the scapula joint with the thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint), the joint between the scapula and the clavicle (acromioclavicular joint) and finally the joint between the clavicle and the sternum (sternoclavicular joint).
The shoulder is a complex of joints that includes:
The glenohumeral joint (head and glenoid cavity)
The scapulothoracic joint (the scapula moving in relation to the chest)
The shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) is a structure consisting of the bullet-shaped head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Normally, the contact surfaces of the bones are covered by the articular cartilage, which in the case of the shoulder is about 3 cm thick.
The biceps is a strong muscle on the front surface of the arm that twists and bends the elbow. The biceps is unique in that it is inserted on the tuberosity of the radius and origins through two heads from the shoulder blade. Thus, it crosses the arm and elbow. The long biceps head passes through a groove at the top of the humeral bone and is bent about 90° above the head of the humerus before reaching the top of the glenoid cavity. It adheres to the glenoid cavity through the cartilage.
What is Osteonecrosis of the Humeral Head? Osteonecrosis of the humeral head or aseptic necrosis describes the pathological condition in which the bone is decaying after interruption of its blood supply and mainly concerns areas of our skeletal system located in the most peripheral parts of the bone vascular system.
The shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) is a diarthrosis consisting of the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity, part of the scapula. It is a spherical type of joint with high mobility and reduced stability.
ANATOMY – WHAT IS THE CLAVICLE?
The clavicle is the shoulder bone that connects the torso with the upper limb. It is a long, S-shaped, wavy bone located just below the skin (subcutaneously). The middle part of the clavicle protects significant structures, such as the brachial plexus and the axillary artery. It also plays an important role in abduction and upper extremity adduction. On the outer side it is articulated with the scapula and on the inner side with the sternum and the first rib. Many times, due to its location and form, it is vulnerable to injuries.
The scapulothoracic bursitis is a medical term that describes a painful pathological condition in the area of the scapula. It is usually associated with crepitation and is believed to be the result of inflammation (bursitis) below the scapula. The serous membrane, in normal conditions, allows the scapula to slide on the chest wall.
The winged scapula is a broad triangular-shaped bone in contact with the posterior surface of the thoracic cage. Its outer surface is hollow (glenoid fossa) for the joint with the head of the humerus. It also has two important protrusions: the scapula spine that ends up to the acromion and the coracoid process on the front side.
ΑΝΑΤΟΜΙΑ. Η στερνοκλειδική άρθρωση εντοπίζεται στο κέντρο του θώρακα και αποτελεί το σημείο στο οποίο έρχονται σε επαφή τα οστά της κλείδας και του στέρνου. Πρόκειται για μια σημαντική άρθρωση αφού αποτελεί την μοναδική άρθρωση που ενώνει το άνω άκρο και τον θώρακα.
The subscapularis tendon is located at the anterior part of the shoulder and is one of the four tendons that make up the rotator cuff of the shoulder. It is the strongest tendon of the rotator cuff and its function is to assist shoulder joint movements, such as the inner rotation of the humerus, which occurs when the upper extremity moves towards the torso during movement e.g. a strike in tennis or swimming.
ΤWHAT IS THE SUPRASCAPULAR NERVE NEUROPATHY?
The suprascapular nerve neuropathy is a condition that is caused by the irritation of the suprascapular nerve in the area of the scapula that can lead to pain and weakness. It is a relatively rare peripheral neuropathy that is underdiagnosed until the most common causes of shoulder pain, such as rotator cuff rupture, acromioclavicular joint injury, or even cervical vertebra disc disease are excluded. Often patients undergo surgery for all of these aforementioned conditions, but continue to have pain due to this rare type of suprascapular nerve entrapment.