Knee Conditions


Meniscus ruptures are some of the most common knee injuries. In particular, those involved in contact sports (football, basketball, etc.) are at higher risk of meniscus injury. However, meniscus rupture can be suffered by anyone without necessarily exercising.


One of the most common knee injuries is the injury or rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Athletes involved in high-demand sports such as football and basketball are very likely to injure the anterior cruciate ligament. If the anterior cruciate ligament is injured, there may be a need for surgical treatment to recover the full range of motion of the patient’s knee. This will depend on factors such as the severity of the injury and the level of sports activity of the patient.


The posterior cruciate ligament lies at the back of the knee. It is one of the ligaments that hold the knee joint stable. In particular, it prevents the tibia from over-sliding relatively to the femur. The rupture of the posterior cruciate implies an injury of high force (serious injury). The most common cause is a knee stroke on the dashboard of a car in traffic accidents or a fall of an athlete on his already bent knee.


The knee is the largest and perhaps the most complex joint of the body, very important for the movement of the human body. The knee ligaments connect the femur to the tibia, fibula and patella. The sprains of the knee ligaments are very common in sports activities. Athletes involved in contact sports, such as football, are far more likely to injure their collateral ligaments.

Patellar dislocation

The patella articulates with the femur and especially with the femoral groove. It is an articular surface in which the patella slides as the knee flexes and extends. Sometimes the patella may be partially or completely dislocated after injury. When the patella is dislocated it causes pain and inability to flex or extend the knee. Even in cases where it is automatically reconstituted – without orthopedic intervention – further treatment is needed.


The tibia is one of the long bones of the body most often subject to fractures. The long bones, among others, include the femur, the humerus, the tibia and the fibula. Fractures of the tibia are located below the knee joint and above the ankle. Since a lot of energy should be applied to fracture the tibial bone, this type of injury is usually part of multiple injuries.


The bones of children and adults are at the same risk of fractures. However, children’s bones, due to their normal development, are subject to a particular type of injury called growth plate fracture (epiphyseal plate). Growth plates are areas of cartilage that are found near the ends of the bones and are particularly vulnerable because they form the last stage of osteogenesis.


Due to the fact that the patella acts as a “shield” for the knee joint, it can easily be fractured. For example, a direct fall on the knee is a common cause of patella fractures and fractures of this kind usually require surgical treatment.


In 2010, approximately 10.4 million patients visited a physician in the United States because of a knee injury, such as fractures, sprains, dislocations and ligament injuries. Knee injuries are one of the most common reasons for a visit to an Orthopedist. The knee is a complex joint that is connected with a series of injuries. Many of these can be successfully treated with conservative measures, such as using splints and rehabilitation exercises. Other more serious injuries require surgery to be repaired.

Combined knee ligament injuries

The knee is the largest and probably the most complex joint in the body, important for movement. The knee joints connect the femur to the lower limb bones. The sprains of the knee joints are very common in sports activities. In particular, athletes who participate in team sports, such as football, are more likely to injure their lateral ligaments.


The term fracture refers to a broken bone. Fractures of the femur located just above the knee are called distal femur fractures. Such fractures are diagnosed either in elderly people with osteoporotic bones or in younger people that have suffered high energy injuries, such as in traffic accidents. In both cases the fracture can be comminuted (several bone segments) and extend into the knee joint.

Osteochondritis – Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease

Osteochondritis of the tibia is a common cause of adult knee pain. It is an inflammation of the area just below the knee, where the patellar tendon is attached to the tibia. It occurs most often during intense growth, when bones, muscles, and tendons develop and change relationships. Because sports activities stress the musculoskeletal system, children involved in them (running, jumping) are at a greater risk of developing osteochondritis. However, even teenagers who do not exercise can face the same problem.


The tendons in the human body are made of strong fibrous tissue and connect the bones with the muscles. The patellar tendon transfers forces from the quadriceps to the anterior surface of the tibia, so that the knee can be extended. Partial ruptures in the tendon make it difficult to walk and participate in daily activities. A total rupture of the patellar tendon is a serious injury that usually requires surgical treatment and subsequent physiotherapy to restore knee function.


The patellofemoral pain syndrome is a general term used to describe the pain present on the anterior surface of the knee. It is often referred to as the “runner’s or jumper’s knee” because it is often observed in athletes, especially women and young people, although it is also observed in non-athletic patients. The pain and stiffness it causes makes it very difficult to climb stairs or bend a knee or even to perform many daily activities. The causes that can contribute to the appearance of this syndrome are many. Problems with the alignment of the patella or even the excessive use of the joint in high energy sports contribute to the development of this syndrome.


Οι τένοντες είναι ισχυρά τμήματα ινώδους ιστού που συνδέουν τα οστά με τους μυς. Ο τετρακέφαλος τένοντας συνεργάζεται με τους μυς στην πρόσθια επιφάνεια του μηρού ώστε να εκτείνεται το γόνατο. Οι μικρές ρήξεις στον τένοντα δυσχεραίνουν τη βάδιση και τη συμμετοχή σε καθημερινές δραστηριότητες. Αντιθέτως, μια μεγάλη ρήξη στον τετρακέφαλο τένοντα είναι ένας σοβαρός τραυματισμός που απαιτεί χειρουργική αντιμετώπιση και επακόλουθη φυσικοθεραπεία για να επανακτηθεί η λειτουργία του γόνατος.


Runner’s painful tibia is a condition associated with intense exercise and sport activities. It refers to the inner part of the tibia bone, in its entire length. It usually occurs after intense activity and especially after running. Any intense activity can cause pain especially, during the first days of a specific exercise program. There are some simple pain relief measures and instructions. Resting in combination with ice therapy often helps. In addition, it should be understood that the patient should not exaggerate with exercises and sports activities.


A fracture just below the knee is called a fracture of the proximal end of the tibia. The proximal part of the tibia is that segment of the tibia bone, which extends to the knee to form the knee joint. In addition to the fractured bone, soft tissues (skin, muscles, nerves, vessels and ligaments) can be injured at the time of the fracture. The fractured bone and the injured soft tissues should be treated at the same time. In most cases, surgery is needed to restore movement, muscle strength and leg stability and to reduce the chance of post-traumatic arthritis.